Cancer that begins in the bone is called primary bone cancer. Primary bone cancer is relatively uncommon in comparison with secondary or metastatic cancer (cancer that occurs initially in another organ and then spreads to bone tissue).
Cancer may also develop in associated bone structures, including the marrow and the connective tissues. Some types of bone cancer may spread to other organs. With modern therapies, the outlook for many patients (especially those with primary bone cancer) has improved significantly.
Symptoms of Bone Cancer:
1.Pain and tenderness in the affected bones. The pain is usually dull and localized and is often worse at night.
Swelling or a noticeable tumor or mass around the site of a primary tumor. (Swelling generally does not occur with metastatic tumors.)
2.Greater susceptibility to bone fractures (as healthy bone cells are replaced by malignant ones).
Causes of Bone Cancer:
1.The cause of primary bone cancer is unknown, but hereditary factors, environmental factors, trauma, or excessive radiation therapy (to treat other types of cancer) may be involved.
2.Metastatic bone cancer most often stems from cancer of the breast, lung, prostate, thyroid, or kidney. Multiple myeloma (a cancer of the bone marrow) may also affect the bones.
3.The incidence of bone cancer is higher in patients with Pagets disease, a degenerative bone disease.
The treatment of cancer of the bone, especially metastatic cancer, has two goals: management of the neoplasm and management of the symptoms produced by the local lesion. Prognosis is affected by a patient's age, the size of the primary tumor, grade and stage, degree of lymphatic and blood vessel invasion, the duration of symptoms and the location of the tumor on the arm, leg or trunk.
There are two ways bone metastasis is treated. Systemic therapy, aimed at cancer cells that have spread throughout the body, includes chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and immunotherapy. Local therapy, aimed at killing cancer cells in one specific part of the body, includes radiation therapy and surgery.
Following these nutritional tips may help reduce symptoms:
Try to eliminate suspected food allergens, such as dairy (milk, cheese, and ice cream), wheat (gluten), soy, corn, preservatives and chemical food additives. Your health care provider may want to test you for food allergies.
Eat foods high in B vitamins, calcium, and iron, such as almonds, beans, whole grains (if no allergy), dark leafy greens (such as spinach and kale), and sea vegetables.
Eat cruciferous vegetables (such as broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower).
Eat antioxidant foods, including fruits (such as blueberries, cherries, and tomatoes), and vegetables (such as squash and bell pepper).
Avoid refined foods such as white breads, pastas, and sugar.
Eat fewer red meats and more lean meats, cold-water fish, tofu (soy, if no allergy) or beans for protein. Quality protein sources, such as organic meat and eggs, whey, and vegetable protein shakes, should be used as part of balanced program aimed at gaining muscle mass and preventing wasting that can sometimes be a side effects of cancer therapies.
Use healthy cooking oils, such as olive oil or vegetable oil.
Reduce or eliminate trans-fatty acids, found in such commercially baked goods as cookies, crackers, cakes, French fries, onion rings, donuts, processed foods, and margarine.
Drink soy milk, for bone health.
Avoid caffeine and other stimulants, alcohol, and tobacco.
Exercise, if possible, 5 days a week.
Nutritional deficiencies with the following supplements:
A multivitamin daily, containing the antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, the B-complex vitamins, and trace minerals such as magnesium, calcium, zinc and selenium.
Calcium citrate, 500 - 1000 mg daily, for bone support.
Vitamin D, 400 IU daily, for bone support.
Probiotic supplement (containing Lactobacillus acidophilus ), 5 to 10 billion CFUs (colony forming units) a day, for maintenance of gastrointestinal and immune health. You should refrigerate your probiotic supplements for best results.
Omega 3 fatty acids, such as fish oil, 1 - 2 capsules or 1 tbsp. of oil one to two times daily, to help decrease inflammation and help with immunity. Cold-water fish, such as salmon or halibut, are good sources.
Vitamin C, 500 - 1,000 mg one to two times daily, as an antioxidant and for immune support.
Lycopene, 5 mg one to three times daily, for antioxidant and anticancer activity.
Alpha lipoic acid, 25 - 50 mg twice daily, for antioxidant support.
Resveratrol (from red wine), 50 to 200 mg daily, to help decrease inflammation and for antioxidant effects.
Glucosamine Chondroitin combination supplement, 500 - 1,000 mg three times daily with food, for support of bone and connective tissue health.
Coenzyme Q10, 100 - 200 mg at bedtime, for antioxidant, immune, and muscular support.